|Questions and Answers|
|Q1||For some countries in ASEAN that have high electrification rate, does ACE consider to implement RE in residential sector as distributed generation (DG) in the future?|
|A1||Yes, in the last five years, we have seen the growth of distributed generation in residential sector in some ASEAN Member States (AMS). Singapore and the Philippines have implemented net-metering mechanism to accommodate this. PLN, Indonesia’s state-owned utility, has issued a regulation (PT PLN’s Regulation of the Board of Directors No. 0733.K/DIR/2013 on the utilisation of photovoltaic rooftop electrical energy by consumers) that allows the Utility to buy electricity from their consumers. Malaysia and Thailand are considering to implement the net-metering in the near future. ACE has been actively initiating discussions with the AMS (government and utility companies) on the net-metering mechanisms. Several workshops have been conducted to exchange knowledge among the AMS. The report on the net-metering workshop could be downloaded here http://aseanrenewables.info/publication/report-on-regional-fgd-on-net-metering/|
|Q2||For the consumer dimension integration into the grid, how does ASEAN population participate in the development of clean energy? Is there any plan to promote the “Prosumer” (producer and consumer) concept to the ASEAN population (e.g. solar rooftop and electric vehicle)?|
|A2||Under the Advancing Policy Scenario (APS) of the 4th ASEAN Energy Outlook (AEO4), electric vehicles are expected to be popular in some Member States, such as Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines. The policy makers are actively promoting this under their national plans.|
|Q3||I was wondering how you define the local content, which is always a challenge in this context.|
Local content is one of the important aspects for the AMS in the development of their national renewable energy policies. Today, there are already two AMS that have set the regulations and measures for local content (see Table).
In Indonesia, verification and approval procedures/mechanism for local content is managed by the Renewable Energy Division of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, while in Malaysia this issue is managed by the Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA).
|Q4||Could you shed some lights on the off-grid renewable energy potential and current state of market?|
|A4||The average electrification ratio in ASEAN Member States is 78.7% (2014), meaning that there are still around 100 million people who have no access to electricity. Most of the population that have not had electricity are living in remote areas, where the grid connection is difficult. Off-grid, whether using 100% renewable energy or hybrid is one of the best solutions for this. The technologies that are mostly utilised for off-grid are small hydro, solar PV (also solar home system), and hybrid (solar PV-diesel, micro hydro-diesel, etc.). Most of the off-grid rural electrification projects are funded by the government or by grants from international organisations, even though in some countries, like Lao PDR, private sector is also involved in these initiatives.|
|Q5||Is the target of overall reduction in total energy demand by 20 % by 2035 in Cambodia realistic? Cambodia is a relatively low income country that will probably grow fast. High growth and falling energy demand may be a challenge.|
The National Energy Efficiency and Conservation (E&C) Policy in Cambodia sets the energy savings reduction target of 20% by 2035 based on 2005 level. The number is reflected in the sectoral targets: savings of at least 20% in the industry sector (garments), up to 50% in the household sector (household appliances), up to 80% in the energy sector (rural energy enterprises), and ranging from 30% to 50% in biomass energy (improved cook stoves and kilns).
This target is in line with the regional aspiration and the Government of Cambodia has shown a strong interest to ensure that the plan is implemented towards achieving the target. The cooperation on ASEAN regional level will allow Cambodia to tap the experience and best practices from other ASEAN Member States (AMS).
The ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE) has undertaken some EE&C cooperation programmes in a way that supports Cambodia to meet their target. Some of the programmes are: capacity building on EE&C policy and regulations; EE&C database development; on-the-job training (OJT)-energy audit; EE&C promotion through energy audit in industry and building; EE standard and labelling & market transformation; as well as certification programme though ASEAN Energy Manager Accreditation Scheme and energy management handbook. Moreover, ACE is also building cooperation with dialogue partners and international organisations (DPs/IOs) to support Cambodia. Under the cooperation with Korea Energy Agency (KEA), Cambodia is expected to have their national EE standard and labelling system for refrigerators by this year. This would help them to accelerate the implementation of their EE measures.
|Q6||What are the common challenges/problems for both renewable energy and energy efficiency? And what are the solutions?|
On Renewable Energy:
Each ASEAN Member State (AMS) has specific challenges in implementing renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE). However, there are a number of common challenges/problems that they are facing:
On Energy Efficiency:
In recent years, all AMS have adopted, or have been in the process of adopting EE strategies or action plans, by defining specific EE objectives. However, the level of development and challenge on energy efficiency and conservation (EE&C) vary from one country to another, such as:
|Q7||What is the current progress of Green Building Code?|
ASEAN has renewed its focus on sustainability by pursuing green building initiatives to ensure the continued efforts on energy security and environment protection. In 2011, ASEAN started the discussion to introduce a new award for Green Buildings (GB) under its long-established programme, the annual ASEAN Energy Awards (AEA). Two categories were created: i) Small & Medium GB and ii) Large GB. The ASEAN Board of Judges (BOJ) and ACE received six entries from 4 AMS namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Singapore and Thailand during its first event. The awardees were selected based on the following criteria: EE (30%); RE (10%); water efficiency (10%); environmental sustainability (20%); indoor environment quality (20%); operation and maintenance & other green features and innovation (10%).
The trend of energy consumption index of buildings as reflected in the AEA green building competition is improving year by year; started from ~250 kWh/m2/year in early 2000 and ~75 kWh/m2/year in 2015 based on 2,000 hours of operation/year. As set up under the new ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation (APAEC) 2016-2020, the region is going forward on the development of green building codes which support the use of high-efficiency products. Some key action plans under the strategy are as follows: i) review existing and international experience of green building codes; ii) develop draft guidelines on ASEAN Green Building Code and Promotional Scheme on green building code; and iii) capacity building for designers and auditors.